How The Breed Was Formed
Today's Yorkshire Terrier is
very different from the early Yorkshire
Terriers of the USA. There are varying accounts of the
origins of this breed and its development.
Before 1750, most British people worked in agriculture. The onset of
the Industrial Revolution brought great changes to family life. In
Yorkshire, small communities grew up around coal mines, textile mills and factories.
People were drawn to these areas to seek work from as far away as Scotland.
They brought with them a breed known as the Clydesdale Terrier, or Paisley
Terrier. These were primarily working dogs, much larger than today's Yorkies,
and were used for catching rats and other small mammals.
These terriers were inevitably crossed with other types of terrier,
probably the English Black and Tan Toy Terrier, and the Skye Terrier;
it is also thought that at some stage the Maltese Terrier was crossed
with these breeds to help produce long coats. As the outline of the
Maltese resembles that of many of today's Yorkies, this is very
likely. Unfortunately, no records in the form of Pedigrees exist to
confirm these crosses (possibly because of the poor level of literacy
in these times), but a great deal is known about the type of people
who bred them, and there can be no doubt that early breeders had a
very clear idea of the type of dogs they were attempting to produce.
We can see in today's Yorkies how strongly the terrier temperament has been
Early Yorkshire Terriers and Breeders
One of the most famous early Yorkies was Huddersfield
Ben, bred by a Mr. Eastwood and owned by Mr. M.A. Foster. Huddersfield Ben
was born in 1865 and died in 1871, and can be said to be the father of the
modern Yorkie. In his day "Ben" was a very popular stud dog who won
many prizes in the show ring, and had tremendous influence in setting breed
In 1874 the first Yorkies were registered in the British Kennel Club
stud book. They were referred to as "Broken Haired Scottish Terriers"
or "Yorkshire Terriers", until 1886, when the Kennel Club recognised
the Yorkshire Terrier as an individual breed. The first Yorkshire
Terrier breed club was formed in 1898. During these early years, one
who greatly influenced the breed was Lady Edith Wyndham-Dawson. Lady Edith
was secretary of the Yorkshire Terrier Club for some time and did much early
work for the improvement of the breed. Later, a Miss Palmer, who was Lady Edith's
kennel maid, started her own Yorkie kennel under the "Winpal" prefix.
When Lady Edith returned to Ireland at the start of World War I, Miss Palmer
went to work for Mrs.
Crookshank of the famous Johnstounburn prefix, a name with a long list of champions,
which is now in the care of Daphne Hillman, who was entrusted with this prefix,
and still uses it along with her own
Many others have worked very hard since these early years to improve this breed,
and to these breeders much is owed. Many of their early dogs became the foundation
stock of kennels in North America and elsewhere.
The Yorkshire Terrier now flourishes throughout the
world and the
early breeders who were instrumental in producing the diminutive toy
terrier of today would surely be astounded at the success of this
delightful breed. In 1932 only 300 Yorkies were registered with the
British Kennel Club, in 1957 the number was 2313, and in the 1970's
Yorkies were the most popular breed in Britain. This trend continued
until 1990 with a record of 25,665 Yorkies registered. However, this
figure has now begun to drop, and in 1994 there were 12343
registrations, with the Yorkie being recorded as the 7th most popular
The most famous Yorkshire Terrier of modern times in the UK was CH Blairsville
Royal Seal. He was by CH Beechrise Surprise and his dam was CH Blairsville
Most Royale. "Tosha" to his friends (of whom he
had many) was bred, owned and handled by Mr. Brian Lister and his wife, Rita.
Tosha was definitely a 'King' among dogs and no one who saw him flowing around
the ring could ever forget him. His prescence could be felt, even by a complete
novice, and many say that just thinking of him brings a lump to the throat.
During his show career Tosha won 50 CCs, all under different judges. He was
12 times Best In Show at all breed CH shows, and 16 times Reserve Best In Show.
He took 33 Group wins, and went Reserve Best In Show at Cruft's in 1978, just
as his dam had done before him. Tosha was Top Dog, all breeds, for two consecutive
years. He became the sire of many prolific Champions and still features in
the pedigree of many of today's Yorkies.
Ironically, when Royal Seal died, aged 15, in 1988, that year his
breed record for the highest number of CCs in the breed was broken by Osman
Sameja's CH Ozmilion Dedication "Jamie", who finished his
show career with 52 CCs, although a few of these were duplicated under the
same judges. Jamie also has two all breed CH show wins, and his many Toy group
wins helped him to win the Top Dog title in 1987. The Ozmilion kennel is the
top Yorkshire Terrier kennel of all time, and holds the record for the number
of Champions produced.
Following on from this, Jamie's grandson, Ch. Ozmilion Mystification
broke another record in 1997 by being the first Yorkie ever to win the
coveted Best In Show award at the most prestigious dog show, Cruft's. "Justin" was
retired after this event, having to his credit a total
51 CCs, 48 with Best of Breed, 22 Group wins, 9 Club BIS, and at All
Breed Shows, 7 RBIS and 3 BIS awards. He was Top Yorkie from
1994-1997, Top Dog All Breeds 1996, Crufts Supreme Champion 1997, and Pedigree
Chum Champion overall Stakes winner 1997.
Some record of achievement! In this same year, the great "Jamie" died.
Yorkies in North America
The first Yorkie to become an American Champion was
Bradford Harry, who gained his title in 1889. He was the great-great-grandson
of Huddersfield Ben, and was imported from England by P.H. Coombs of Bangor,
Maine. Some of the most notable early American kennels are Janet Bennet and
Joan Gordon (Wildweir) who imported many English Yorkies, including lines from
Johnstounburn, Haringay and Buranthea. The Mayfield-Barban kennels owned by
Anne Seranne and Barbara Wolferman have also done much to improve the breed.
Whilst CH Blairsville Royal Seal dominated the British show scene, his American
counterpart, CH Cede Higgens was making his mark in the USA. These two dogs
were both shown during the same era, and were inevitably, constantly being
compared. However, although they were both outstanding specimens of the breed,
those who had seen them both, agreed that they were totally different in type.
Bred by C.D. Lawrence, Cede Higgens was closely line-bred to the Clarkwyns
and Wildweir lines, by CH. Wildweir Pomp 'N Circumstance.
Another dog who had significant influence on the North American
Yorkies was CH Finstal Royal Icing, bred by Sybil Pritchard in the UK and exported
to the Jentre kennels after Sybil died. He is by CH
Finstal Johnathan, who still has winning progeny in the UK today.
Johnathan was looked after by Wendy White (Wenwytes) after Sybil'sdeath, until
he died in 1994 aged about 17.
The Yorkshire Terrier is also very popular in North America today. In
1992, Yorkies were #14 on the AKC's list of most popular breeds with
39,904 registrations. In 1994 they were #11, although registrations
had dropped to 38,626.
It may seem strange that Yorkies have risen in popularity in North
America while the number of registrations has dropped, but overall,
AKC registration, is down (as is UK registration), with some popular
breeds having dramatic reductions in the numbers now registered.
The Yorkshire Terrier Breed
(British Kennel Club)
GENERAL APPEARANCE: Long-Coated, coat hanging quite straight
and evenly down each side, a parting extending from nose to tail. Very compact
and neat, carriage very upright conveying an important air. General outline
conveying impression of vigorous and well proportioned body.
CHARACTERISTICS: Alert, intelligent toy terrier.
TEMPERAMENT: Spirited with even disposition
HEAD AND SKULL: Rather small and flat, not too prominent or
round in skull, not too long in muzzle; black nose.
EYES: Medium, dark, sparkling, with sharp intelligent expression
placed to look directly forward. Not prominent. Edge of eyelids dark.
EARS: Small, V-shaped, carried erect, not too far apart, covered
short hair, colour very deep, rich tan.
MOUTH: Perfect, regular and complete scissor bite. i.e. upper
closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws. Teeth well
placed with even jaws.
NECK: Good reach
FOREQUARTERS: Well laid shoulders, legs straight, well covered
with hair of rich golden tan a few shades lighter at the ends than at
roots, not extending higher on forelegs than elbow.
BODY: Compact with moderate spring of rib, good loin. Level
HINDQUARTERS: Legs quite straight when viewed from behind,
moderate turn of stifle. Well covered with hair of rich golden tan a few
shades lighter at the ends than at roots, not extending higher on hindlegs
FEET: Rounds; nails black
TAIL: Customarily docked to medium length with plenty of hair,
darker blue in colour than rest of body, especially at the end of tail.
Carried a little higher than level of back *
GAIT/MOVEMENT: Free with drive; straight action front and
retaining level topline.
COAT: Hair on body moderately long, perfectly straight (not
glossy; fine silky texture, not woolly. Fall on head long, rich golden
tan, deeper in colour at sides of head, about ear roots and on muzzle
where it should be very long. Tan on head not to extend on to neck,
nor must any sooty or dark hair intermingle with any of the tan.
COLOUR: Dark steel blue (not silver blue), extending from
root of tail, never mingled with fawn, bronze or dark hair. Hair on
chest rich, bright tan. All tan hair darker at the roots than in the
middle, shading still lighter at the tips.
SIZE: Weight up to 3.1 kgs (7lbs)
FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be
considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded
should be in exact proportion to its degree.
NOTE: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicals
fully descended into the scrotum **
* In the UK it is now possible to show animals with undocked tails. As yet
there is no recognised standard for the presentation, type, length or carriage
of a full tail.
** It may also be possible now in the UK to show neutered animals,
providing permission has been obtained from the Kennel Club in
Differences in the American Kennel Club Breed Standard
There is very little difference in the American standard.
1. Neck: no mention is made in the Am. standard
2. Mouth: The Am. standard states: "the bite neither overshot nor
undershot and teeth sound. Either scissors bite or level bite is
acceptable" No reference is made to a full mouth.
are a small glamorous dog which compete in the Toy
Group in most countries, as in the UK and USA. Showing
breed is very specialised and time consuming and only
for the really dedicated enthusiasts. To grow the Yorkie
coat and prepare it to show standard is not an easy
task. Should anyone wish to know more about this, then
please send a private email request to the author,
a specialist breed club, or read one of the many books
that show how the Yorkie coat is prepared and maintained.
In the UK, the Yorkshire Terrier is traditionally displayed in line in
the show ring, on its own individual wooden box, which is draped with
a cover, usually red, but as there is no rule about the box cover,
some exhibitors use blue or tartan covers. The Yorkie is still
examined on the judge's table, as in most other countries. A ring full
of mature Yorkies displayed on their little red boxes is truly a sight
The Yorkie is without doubt
one of the most appealing of all Toy
breeds. It is charming and intelligent, and despite its size, is full
of courage, loyalty and affection. Although this breed is small, the
Yorkie still retains the true Terrier temperament. Yorkies are small
enough to carry and are ideal for anyone with a small home or
apartment. The Yorkie is happy to go on quite long walks, but is
equally happy to run around a small garden or home, providing it has
enough toys and distractions to occupy its lively mind. These are
little dogs who think they are much bigger. They will defend their
territory decisively. They have an acute sense of hearing and will
alert their owners to the slightest sign of intruders. They can be
very noisy, so consideration must be given to neighbours when
considering this breed as a pet.
have a long coat, Yorkies are not suitable for anyone
who does not have the time or inclination to spend
on the grooming and bathing this breed requires. Most
pet Yorkies do in fact have their coats trimmed short
or shaved for convenience and hygiene. Therefore, anyone
obtaining a pet Yorkie must remember that there will
be additional grooming expenses to take into consideration.
The Yorkie coat does not shed, and does not have an undercoat, making Yorkies
desirable for some people with allergies, and those who do not want a breed
that has a messy moult. The correct texture of the coat is described as long,
straight and silky. It will continue to grow unless trimmed. In fact, the Yorkie
coat is very similar to human
Special care must be taken to ensure that the hair around the anus of these
dogs is kept clean. Because of their long hair, it is common for these dogs
to become matted in this area, and this can lead to
compacted faeces. Apart from making the dog very sore and
uncomfortable, this may, if left unattended, cause more serious
problems, such as fly strike, that would require veterinary
Yorkie puppies may have "tipped" or "tilted" ears until
around 6 months old. I am frequently asked about this when owners
purchase a 10 week old puppy with nice erect ears, only to find that
the ears drop again around 4 months of age. This is often because at
this time the Yorkie is shedding it's milk teeth and cutting it's
adult teeth, which can cause the ears to go up and down daily, and
owner's should not be unduly concerned during this natural stage.
However, it is important to keep the hair on the top third of the ear
flap trimmed very short. This will stop the ears from being weighed
down by excessive hair until they are firmly "set". Also the hair
should be plucked from inside the ears, and ears checked regularly for excessive
wax and for mites.
Yorkies should also have special attention paid to their eyes, and
teeth. The long hair should be prevented from falling into their eyes,
thus causing irritation and infection, either by tying it back or
trimming it. As with most Toy breeds, Yorkies may have a tendency to tartar
build-up on the teeth, but if regular attention is given to the
teeth this should not be a serious problem.
Yorkies do not have an undercoat, and even with a long coat, they feel the
cold very easily, and like most Toy breeds prefer the comfort of cosiness and
warmth. They enjoy being pampered. Yorkies are difinitely not a breed to keep
outside in a kennel. When going out in cold or wet weather they will appreciate
a warm dog coat to wear.
Although regular grooming may be an added expense for the Yorkie
owner, Yorkies eat very little, and are not expensive to feed.
Suitability as Pets
Yorkies will live happily with
cats and other dogs if brought up with
them, but being terriers, they are also very possessive of their
owners, so care should be taken when introducing this breed to a new animal
household member. If they do fight, they can fight to the
death. As with all small dogs, great care should be taken when
allowing small children to handle them, as they are prone to jump from any
height, and of course, being small, are more susceptible to
accidents around the home, by way of careless human feet and the
opening and closing of doors. They do however love to play with
sensible children. Their favourite sleeping place is their owner's
Yorkies are generally easy to
house train. For their own safety it is
better to crate train them and to leave them in a crate when they are
left alone, e.g. during the night or if their owners are out of the
home. Always leave them some toys and fresh water, and be sure they have a
cosy bed inside the crate. Remember that as they do enjoy human company they
will not appreciate being left alone for long periods.
Obedience training is highly recommended for Yorkies. Although few
Yorkies compete in obedience in the UK today, a little dog called
"Shandy" did compete successfully, and was placed in the highly
acclaimed obedience championships at Cruft's in 1973. All breeds can and do
benefit nevertheless from basic obedience training.
Health and Longevity
generally hardy and healthy and long-lived. Like many
Toy breeds however, there is some incidence of heriditary/congenital
disease in the form of patella luxation, open fontanellas, Perthe's
disease and a smaller incidence of elongated soft palate and a
tendency to collapsed trachea. _*_ However, conscientious breeders
only breed from sound, selected stock, and do their best to eliminate
these defects. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that one buy only from
a reputable breeder, and never purchase a puppy from a pet shop or 'puppy mill'.
Wherever possible one should see the puppy in the home where it was bred, and
view its parents, or at least its mother. A reputable breeder will offer constant
support and assistance throughout the dog's life. To purchase a puppy from
an unreliable source may invite future heartbreak (and huge vet's bills).
_* NB: The BVA/KC who conduct health screening schemes for inherited are now
advising that Yorkies should undergo eye tests for PRA and late onset HC. These
conditionas are under investigation in the UK for this breed. In the USA, many
breeders already have their breeding stock tested for PRA.
Choosing a Puppy
What colour will my dog be?
All Yorkshire Terriers are born with smooth coats and are black
with small tan points. It is only with maturity that the beautiful
long, dark steel blue and shaded tan coat develops. This feature
can vary in age depending on the individual, but when buying a
puppy you can expect it to still be black on its body, and for its
head markings to still be very "sooty" looking. In puppyhood this
is not a fault. Some Yorkies do stay black, whilst others become
very light and silver. Although these are considered faults for
showing, it is impossible to determine in a young puppy what colour
it will become as a young adult. In any case, the colour will not
of course, affect the dog's quality as a companion.
Do Yorkies come in Miniature and Standard varieties?
Many beginning Yorkie fanciers believe that there are two types of
Yorkie, Miniature and Standard--this is not so. However, many pet
Yorkies are somewhat larger than the show Yorkies; again this does
not affect their suitability as pets or make them any less
desirable as companions.
How soon can a puppy be sold to a new home?
If a Yorkie is wanted only as a pet, a reputable breeder may be
prepared to let a puppy go to a new home between 8-10 weeks of age (although
12 weeks is more desirable). A pet quality Yorkie will be far cheaper than
a show quality specimen (which most breeders will not sell until much older).
It is quite impossible to have any
indication of show quality in this breed until the dog is at least
6 months of age.
What Sex is best as a pet?
This is a matter of personal preference. Most breeders believe both
dogs and bitches are equally loving, loyal and intelligent, and
make good companions. A bitch may come into season from 6 months onwards, when
extra care must be taken to prevent unwanted matings. Pet Yorkies are better
neutered. This will prevent unwanted puppies and the possibility of disease
in later life. Many breeders may not wish to issue registration papers for
pet puppies, or may only do so on proof of neutering.
What should I feed my Yorkie?
When collecting your puppy be sure to get a diet sheet from the
breeder and try to stick to its recommendations, especially in the
first few weeks. The breeder should also provide you with
documentation of worming preparations given, any vaccinations the
puppy may have had, and a pedigree form.
How should I keep my Yorkie confined when travelling?
ALWAYS make sure that your dog is safe and secure when travelling
in a vehicle. The best way to do this is to train it to travel in a
special travelling box or crate (such as a Vari-Kennel). Should you
need to brake suddenly, your little dog will then be less likely to
be thrown forward and injured. Keeping your dog in a crate while
travelling will also prevent it from distracting the driver and
causing an accident.
Books on Yorkies
1. Book of The Yorkshire Terrier, by Joan M. Brearley uk
2. The Yorkshire Terrier 3rd ed., by Gwen Bulgin uk
3. Le Yorkshire, by Joel DeHasse
4. Yorkshire Terriers, by Kerry Donnelly uk
5. Yorkies Today, by Anne Fisher uk *
6. The New Complete Yorkshire Terrier, by Joan B. Gordon uk
7. Your Yorkshire Terrier 2nd ed., by Morris Howard
8. All About The Yorkshire Terrier, by Mona Huxham uk
9. Yorkshire Terriers, by Armin Kriechbaumer & Jurgen Grunn
10. How To Raise & Train A Yorkshire Terrier, by Arthur Liebers
11. The Yorkshire Terrier, by Aileen Markley Martello
12. Pet Owner's Guide to the Yorkshire Terrier, by Douglas McKay uk
13. Yorkshire Terriers, by Mario Migliori
14. The Popular Yorkshire Terrier 9th ed., by Edith Munday uk
15. A Dog-Owner's Guide to Yorkshire Terriers, by Jackie Ransom uk **
16. Yorkshire Terriers, by Osman Sameja uk
17. Know Your Yorkshire Terrier, by Earl Schneider
* Highly recommended up to date book for the pet owner or those
wishing to start out in the show ring.
** Another good little book, for both pet or new show owner.
this article taken from Sue James "Yorkshire